The Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an appliance consisting of filter set (2-4), storage tank and a faucet. The filter set and the storage tank are placed in the cabinet underneath the kitchen sink as the faucet goes on top of the sink, which might involve re-arrangement of the main faucet, soap dispenser or the dishwasher air gap to free a hole for the RO faucet or cutting a new one might be needed. As a result of the operation, the purified water goes into the storage tank as the dirty water is being dumped in the drain.
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane. This membrane-technology is not properly a filtration method. In RO, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property that is driven by chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter. RO can remove many types of molecules and ions from solutions and is used to both industrial processes and in producing portable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the pure solvent is allowed to pas to the other side. To be “selective,” this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.
In the normal osmosis process, the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration (High Water Potential), through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration (Low Water Potential). The movement of a pure solvent is driven to reduce the energy of the system by equalizing solute concentrations on each side of a membrane, generating osmotic pressure. Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, thus, is reverse osmosis. The process is similar to other membrane technology applications. However, there are key differences between reverse osmosis and filtration. The predominant removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or size exclusion, so the process can theoretically achieve perfect exclusion of particles regardless of operational parameters such as influent pressure and concentration. Moreover, reverse osmosis involves a diffusive mechanism so that separation efficiency is dependent on solute concentration, pressure, and water flux rate. Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other effluent materials from the water molecules.